DNA Testing and Paternity Testing Guide http://www.paternitytestkit.org DNA Test, Genetic Testing, Home DNA Test Info Source Tue, 25 Sep 2012 22:32:04 +0000 en hourly 1 http://www.paternitytestkit.org http://www.paternitytester.com/wp-content/mbp-favicon/DNA favicon.gifDNA Testing and Paternity Testing Guide DNA Testing and Paternity Testing Guidehttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/genetic-testing/dna-testing-and-paternity-testing-guide/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/genetic-testing/dna-testing-and-paternity-testing-guide/#comments Wed, 06 Apr 2011 13:16:20 +0000 dnatesting http://www.herbalincensereviews.org/?p=1

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Almost no one wants to have to purchase a DNA Test or paternity testing kit.  They cost money, they’re a hassle and, DNA test 225x300 DNA Testing and Paternity Testing Guidedepending on the circumstances, can open doors to some pretty complicated places.  Let’s face reality though, in this day and age, they’re just a fact of life and are not going to go away.     Since DNA Testing and genetic testing appear to be here to stay, let’s try to make that process a bit easier with some Free Information and some guidance as to which DNA Testing products and Lab Companies are the best, most accurate and most cost effective.  These guys are most certainly NOT all created equal and, depending on your needs for this test, your choice of both the type of test and the company, whether a lab or a home test, could be crucial.   Finally, if you’re going to pay for a DNA Test or Paternity testing kit, you obviously want it to be accurate, but that doesn’t always equate to paying the highest price.

A little information to help you decipher our rating and comparisons chart:   This isn’t really about which test is “Best” – It’s more about which test is Best for You in your particular situation, so look at it that way.  We give you the different DNA Paternity Testing Situations and then the test that is right for each one.  The columns in the table will tell you whether it is a Blood/Saliva/Hair Test – sometimes you have a choice.  It will tell you whether the test is a “Home Test”, where you do the sample at home and then mail it off to the Lab (H/L) or if you have to go into a Lab to do everything – the sampling, etc. because it may be a Legal DNA Test (L).  It also tells you how long you will have to wait for your results and whether the test is considered to be a Legal DNA test or not, that you can use in a court of law.

PaternityTester.com is NOT owned by any of the merchants or labs that we refer you to for the purchase of these DNA Tests.  We look for great pricing, safety, accuracy and service and the merchants that we refer to can change at any time.  This is one of the reasons that we like to get reader feedback.   Regardless of why you search for DNA Testing or Paternity testing and genetic testing information, we are set up to help out.  This site lists some of the top DNA test kits on the net for a genetic test, paternity test, or maternity test and and tells you where you can buy home dna test kits online, without getting ripped off.  We’ll also provide a ton of content and much more.  Stick around and come back often.

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Home DNA Testhttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/home-dna-test/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/home-dna-test/#comments Fri, 10 Jun 2011 17:52:25 +0000 dnatesting http://www.herbalincensereviews.org/?p=31

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As everybody around the world knows that DNA test is done primarily to establish the paternity test in the court of law, but this procedure can be very long and also much more expensive. Also, some people who have doubts about the paternity of their children and would not like to publicize their doubts in public and would like to settle their doubts in private and for their own satisfaction only.

Reasons for the home DNA testing

Sometimes, these people also don’t want to publicize their doubts and would not like to express their doubts about the paternity of their children to their partners in fear of spoiling their relationship with the lack of trust towards their partners but would like to settle their doubts in private. Also, they are afraid of the adverse publicity and would not like to expose their doubts to their colleagues and other people. So, these people can perform the DNA testing at home in private, where they can do these with a home dna sample and settle their doubts.

There are some steps which you are required to take for doing the DNA testing at home.Baby240H Home DNA Test

1. First you will have to decide what type of the DNA testing you would like to do? As there are many types of DNA testing like Swab testing and Blood testing.  Most choose the bucal sample (saliva) because it is easiest, particularly on the child, and is just as accurate.

2. You should order your Home DNA Test from your selected online DNA Testing provider, who will mail you everything you need to do your sampling with detailed instructions.

3. After following the directions for the sampling at home, the DNA samples are mailed off to the lab in the provided envelope where they will be tested.

4. Generally results are ready in about 5-7 working days from the time the lab receives the samples, although there are options to pay for expedited service and get a quicker dna test result.

If you have any doubts about the parentage of your child and do not want to share this doubts in the public by doing DNA test in the public, now you have the means and ways to conduct the DNA testing at home to satisfy your doubts discreetly and confidently. You can take the samples like hair, swab or blood samples from the child confidently and put it in an envelope and send it to the DNA testing lab or test it with home kit.  Just remember, however, if you doing this “secretly”, look at one of our other articles on this matter.  Also, this sort of test is not considered to be a “legal” test, where it can be used as evidence in a court of law.  This is, however, the quickest and most cost-effective way to privately settle the issue of paternity.

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Legal DNA Testinghttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/legal-dna-testing/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/legal-dna-testing/#comments Wed, 20 Jul 2011 01:56:45 +0000 dnatesting http://drugtesting-kit.com/?p=459

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There are two types of DNA testing done today, one of them is chain of custody DNA testing, or Legal DNA Testing, and other can be described as the Non- Chain of Custody DNA test or in home DNA testing which can be done today. There are many differences between the both DNA test. Chain of custody DNA testing is recognized by both by the Accreditation Organization AABB  and the legal evidence is admitted by the civil court in the legal cases.  But the non-chain of custody DNA testing or in-home DNA testing is not recognized by the accreditation organization AABB, neither the medical evidence is recognized by the civil court in legal cases. But there are many other differences also.

Differences between Chain of custody DNA testing and Non-Chain of custody DNA testing –legal dna test Legal DNA Testing

  1. The chain of custody DNA testing is used primarily for establishing the close relationships in the court of law whereas the non-chain or home DNA test is done for satisfying curiosity, personal information, or just settling personal disputes that will not end up in a courtroom.
  2. The procedure of the chain of custody has established for the purpose of the legal matter, so there are some stringent procedures, which are followed in the strict manner. The chronological documentation is done logically, which shows all the steps like custody, seizure, transfer, control, disposal and analysis of the evidence in a systemic way. The methodological documentation prevents tampering of any evidence and provides the basis for legally accepted evidence whereas there is no strict procedure involved in the non-chain of custody DNA testing.
  3. In the chain of custody DNA tests, there are many requirements to prevent the contamination of the evidence like the all the concerned parties are required to present in the DNA testing lab during the sample taking. They are supposed to provide the legal identification before the sample collection. For that purpose, they are supposed to provide the legal ID proof and have pictures available of the participants. After that, all adults who are being tested are supposed to provide the written consent and if any minor is involved, the guardian of the minor must give the consent for the test.
  4. The professional of third party who is collecting the specimen, called the “sampler” should be trained professionally and will have to document his own participation truthfully. The collector of the specimen will do the proper labeling, packaging and shipping of the specimens precluding the possibility of the contamination.
  5. When the DNA testing Lab receives the specimen, they will have to isolate and test the specimen in a logical manner and document the procedure in the prepared format, by the staff who are participating in the DNA test. Further, they will have to report the results in a format which is acceptable for legal cases where as the non-chain of custody is done for satisfying the curiosity. The client themselves collect any sample from the house of the other party. The consent is not taken and the client deposits the specimen themselves with the DNA testing Lab for getting the result.

To check the biological relationship with DNA testing

If you just would like satisfy your curiosity regarding the biological relationship, you can do the non-chain of custody DNA testing, but if you want to establish the matter in the court of law, you will have do the chain of custody DNA testing, or Legal DNA Testing.  It is not nearly as expensive and complicated as it was in the past.  The online firms that specialize in this have put together very standardized procedures to make things as clear, concise and affordable as possible for the participants.  If you’re looking at some sort of legal situation involving paternity, be sure to do it right the first time and get a legal paternity test done so that you don’t have to go to the expense to do it over again.

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Secret DNA Testinghttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/secret-dna-testing/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/secret-dna-testing/#comments Tue, 23 Aug 2011 00:35:44 +0000 dnatesting http://drugtesting-kit.com/?p=449

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So, you have some doubts about paternity, or maternity,and to clear your doubts you would like to do DNA testing, but the other party is not co-operative and you would like to be discreet about the DNA testing. There are some steps to perform the discreet DNA testing. But be aware that by doing so, you are invading the right of privacy of the other individuals and could very well be prosecuted for the same.

The steps to perform Secret DNA Testing

  1. First, you should familiarize yourself with the detail terms of the DNA testing and its different methods of paternity testing. You also will have to understand various technical terms, which are written on the DNA testing Lab medical report. There are numerous methods with which the paternity testing is done. Decide about the method which you would like to use for DNA testing.
  2. There are multiple ways to do discreet sampling for DNA testing and the extra cost for testing, as well as the accuracy/success rate varies with each one.  The table below gives you an idea of the various choices:
CategoryGeneral CommentsExtra Cost Per SampleSuccess Rate*
Blood (Whole)Medical blood draw in Vacutainer tube.$119.0099%
Blood StainsBand aids, tampons, blood-stained tissues.$119.0075%
BoneFibula or Femur, ~
4-inch section.
Price on request75%
Cigarette Butts2 to 4 butts$119.0065%
ClothingHats, baseball caps, underwear, bandanna.$119.0050%
Dental FlossDo not touch the floss with your fingers.$119.0075%
Ear WaxCotton swab or Q-tip.$119.0075%
Electric Razor ClippingsPlace in paper envelope.$119.0050%
GumDo not touch the gum with your fingers. Sugar-free gum is preferred.$119.0050%
HairRoots or follicles must be attached. Hair from  brush or comb may not work. Required 6-10 hairs.$119.0060%
Licked Envelope/StampGreeting card or letter.$195.0025%
Nails (Finger / Toe)Freshly trimmed nails work best.$119.0075%
Paraffin Embedded TissueFrom pathology laboratories.$195.0095%
Post Mortem TissueCoroner samples, funeral homes.$195.0065%
RazorsPlace razor in a paper envelope.$119.0040%
Sperm / SemenLiquid semen: Absorb suspected semen stain onto a clean cotton swab. Air-dry for 1 hour.

Dried semen stains: Absorb semen stain onto a clean cotton swab moistened with distilled water. Air-dry for 1 hour.

$119.0090%
TeethMolar, premolar or canine preferred.$195.0085%
ToothbrushAir-dry the toothbrush for 30-60 minutes.$119.0075%
ToothpickDon’t touch the toothpick with your fingers.$119.0065%
Umbilical Cord (Dried)Place in paper envelope.$119.0090%
Used Kleenex / HandkerchiefNasal Mucous. Place in paper envelope.$195.00
  1. 95%

Determine which of these types of samples is going to work best for your purposes, collect the sample along with the other sample (child’s) for comparison and mail off to the lab per the instructions given to you.

3.   If you need advice about the best type of discreet sample to collect and how to do so, contact the testing service beforehand and they will be glad to help you make the right selection and guide you in the sampling process.

4.   Depending on which sort of discreet sample you sent in, test results will be ready anywhere from 5 working days to approximately 10.

5.   After the DNA testing lab is finished with the tests, you will obtain your results first by email, followed up by a hard copy in the mail of your paternity testing report.

Conclusion

DNA testing today is mostly used for establishing the paternity claims and is used extensively in court cases as the viable medical evidence. However, sometimes the other party refuses the right or creates many obstacles. So, if you would like to do the paternity testing and would like to avoid all the hassles, you can take some steps to perform secret DNA testing. However, you should realize that secret dna testing  is not considered to be Legal DNA Testing or Chain of Custody DNA testing so cannot be used in court.  This could, however, be a good first step in that direction by first proving paternity or genetic relationship through this type of testing if other avenues have been unsuccessful.

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DNA Testing While Pregnanthttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/dna-testing-while-pregnant/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/dna-testing-while-pregnant/#comments Sat, 22 Oct 2011 21:28:36 +0000 dnatesting http://www.herbalincensereviews.org/?p=92

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DNA testing is done for many reasons, primarily for catching the criminals or for paternity testing for establishing the close relationship between a father and the baby. The DNA testing can be done before and after the birth of the baby. The people who cannot wait for the duration of the pregnancy to establish the paternity have it done during the pregnancy. But there are many advantages and disadvantages of the DNA testing while pregnant.

Today, with the advanced technology, it has become easier to establish the paternity of a baby before and after the birth. Most of the people wait for the birth of the baby to establish the paternity by doing the DNA testing, but there are some people who don’t want to wait for the duration. For such people, it is possible nowadays to do the paternity testing to establish the paternity of a child. There are some pro and cons of doing the DNA testing during the pregnancy before the birth of the child –

Pros of DNA testing while pregnant  –

  1. If the baby has inherited any defective gene, sometimes the parents know about it immediately and can make decisions accordingly.chain of custody paternity testing DNA Testing While Pregnant
  2. If you would like to know about the sex of the baby, you get the knowledge before the birth of the baby.
  3. The doctors can do the baby’s health level before the birth and take corrective measures immediately.
  4. After the paternity test results are known, the atmosphere of the tension and suspicion which pollutes the atmosphere is cleared and it becomes healthy which many believe affects the baby’s growth.
  5. The relationship between the future mother and father can become stronger.

Cons of the parental testing during the pregnancy –

  1. If invasive DNA testing is done during the pregnancy, it can have the harmful effects upon the pregnancy which can cover the effects to miscarriage as to the loss of the unborn child. Sometimes, there may be also the threat to the mother’s life.  However, most testing now is non-invasive – no needles, no drugs, nothing to disturb the fetus.
  2. Due to paternity testing during the pregnancy, the relationship between the future father and mother could deteriorate due to lack of trust between them which can affect the child.
  3. If any defective gene is detected, the child may not be permitted to born.

DNA testing is primarily done for various purposes, to trace the guilty criminal suspect or to establish the parental claim in private or in the court of law. Most of the parental tests are done after the birth of the child but sometimes, the people cannot wait for the duration of the pregnancy and insist on the dna testing while pregnant or prenatal dna testing. As with everything, there are some pros and cons of conducting a dna test while pregnant but nothing like they were several years ago when the dna testing was invasive and could harm the fetus.  That is no longer the case.  Even so, when making the decision about DNA testing during pregnancy, you should take both pros and cons in consideration before making the final decision.  Also, it is possible to get both a legal dna test and a non-legal dna test with a prenatal paternity test so you will need to decide whether or not you think the test results will later be needed in a courtroom and order accordingly as well.  If in doubt, you can discuss with the testing center prior to placing your order and they’d be happy to advise you.

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DNA Testing Deceased Parenthttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/dna-testing-deceased-parent/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-testing/dna-testing-deceased-parent/#comments Fri, 30 Sep 2011 19:20:59 +0000 dnatesting http://www.herbalincensereviews.org/?p=120

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DNA testing can be basically defined as the close relation between two people, the child and the father, child an mother, siblings, and even aunts/uncles to nieces/nephews.  But it hinges on the condition of matching the two DNA samples. It cannot be done, if one of the DNA samples is not available for DNA testing. In some conditions it becomes impossible as the parent is not available for some reasons or he is deceased.

Reasons for DNA testing when parent is deceased

The DNA testing becomes a necessity, when a wealthy parent is deceased and it is necessary to prove the paternity to inherit the estate of the deceased person. It is difficult because one of the persons isDNA 300x225 DNA Testing Deceased Parent deceased and most often the body is interred or buried so it is difficult to conduct the parental testing. It is often said that the truth gets buried with the deceased person, but as the DNA testing technology is getting advanced, now it cannot be said as the truth because now the science has several methods to find out the truth. There are several DNA testing which you can conduct the parental testing for determining the relationship with the deceased person.

  1. You can compare the DNA testing samples with the other persons of the family if the father is deceased and determine the extent of the relationship between the child and the other relations like siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nephews and nieces and other persons of the family. If you don’t want to use this method for DNA testing samples, there are other methods of determining the relationship.
  2. If the father is deceased not more than a week, and his things like the toothbrush, comb or used tissue papers are still around, you can take DNA sample from these things and conduct the parental testing by comparing them with the child’s DNA samples. Just check that the DNA testing Lab is equipped for such a parental test (there is a table of discreet samples accepted in our “Secret DNA Testing” article). The problem you are likely to face is the inadequate amount of the DNA sample to conduct the accurate parental testing.
  3. If the father is deceased and the body has not been interred or buried yet, you can take the necessary permission and extract the fingernails or the hair samples from the body and conduct the paternity testing from such a sample with the concerned child’s DNA sample. But you will have to make sure that the particular DNA testing lab which is chosen by you has the necessary facility for conducting the parental testing.
  4. The last resort of the DNA testing is to exhume the body to conduct the DNA testing. As this is very costly method of doing the DNA testing, you should take advice from the forensic pathology specialist before taking this step. Also if the death has happened long ago, you can take the sample of 2 grams from the femur of the body to conduct the DNA testing. If the body was cremated, then you cannot use this method.

So, you can still conduct the DNA test when the parent is deceased and there are many alternatives available to you.  Be sure to realize that the testing may or may not be admissible in court, depending on if it in done in a Chain of Custody manner or not.  If you need the DNA test results for a legal proceeding, simply contact the testing center before placing your order to be sure that you are getting precisely what you need.

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Different Accreditations for DNA Testing Labs and What They Meanhttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/different-accreditations-for-dna-testing-labs-and-what-they-mean/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/different-accreditations-for-dna-testing-labs-and-what-they-mean/#comments Wed, 05 Sep 2012 22:29:08 +0000 dnatesting http://www.paternitytestkit.org/?p=889

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To ensure that laboratories and testing services remain at par, they have to go through a lot of accreditation programs. This is because testing methods change very fast and every day different new technologies are coming up. This testing or accreditation ascertains whether the equipment a lab is using can be relied on or not at giving accurate results. It also checks how qualified the laboratory staff are, as well as the appropriateness of their testing methods and the regular mode of operations. This is to make sure that quality services are offered to the clients. DNA testing services involve testing for genetic disorders. It is mostly known for testing parental diagnostics and forensics.dna testing accreditation Different Accreditations for DNA Testing Labs and What They Mean

 

Generally, DNA testing is done to determine the biological father or mother of a particular child. A postnatal test of DNA can be done by using cheek swab, blood or umbilical cord sample. Meanwhile, a prenatal test is usually done during the second trimester. It is done by removing a sample of amniotic fluid.

 

To be considered for most of the testing enhancement funding programs, you must get the accreditation from the American Society of crime-lab Directors-Laboratory Accreditation Board (the accreditation program for DNA laboratories). The National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) or other appropriate accrediting bodies that include:

 

American Association of Blood Banks (AABB): These offer international gold approved for DNA testing laboratories. The program establishes and promotes the highest values for testing quality. Most government agencies, courts included demand a DNA test be performed in AABB-accredited laboratories.

 

ACLASS Accreditation Services (ISO/IEC 17025): This is an international organization charged with laboratories accreditation. ISO/IEC 17025 is the internationally approved set for making sure the technical competency of laboratories. It covers every angle of laboratory management from preparation of the samples to analytical testing expertise to record keeping and reports.

 

Accreditation means a lot to the laboratories, as they are realizable standards against which performance is measured. It also enhances status, increasing reputation in the market i.e. the patients or other bodies that would be interested in DNA testing.

 

The test for paternity identification is designed for proving whether the man is the child’s biological father. The DNA results are the most reliable source of paternity test and no one questions the results. There are numerous benefits of this testing and it is applicable for different purposes to different people. One benefit that people can have through testing is to know the risk of serious health conditions inherited from the family.

 

If a person has a doubt that the disease of a particular parent or relative may be passed on to him, then he can go for DNA testing and ensure whether the genes of that particular sick person are in him. This is to help take preventive measures before the symptoms of the disease appear.  Courts also take the benefit of a DNA test to solve paternity issues and rape cases. Therefore, you can see how beneficial DNA testing is.

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Choosing the Right DNA Paternity Testing Serviceshttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/choosing-the-right-dna-paternity-testing-services/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/choosing-the-right-dna-paternity-testing-services/#comments Sat, 30 Jun 2012 22:24:47 +0000 dnatesting http://www.paternitytestkit.org/?p=885

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DNA testing has become a very standard, authentic, official and effective method of determining a person’s identity and to determine the genuineness of the paternity claims. In the olden days the blood typing or the serological testing was used to determine the paternity of people. However those tests were not conclusive enough and led to various doubts regarding the effectiveness as well as genuineness of the results. Thus this led to the invention of the testing technique known as DNA testing that has pretty much become a standard method of determining a person’s identity.DNA test Choosing the Right DNA Paternity Testing Services

The DNA testing is used for a wide range of application across the various industries. However the most common usage of the DNA testing is in the forensic department where the identities of individual are established and the technique is commonly used by the law enforcement agencies. The family relations are effectively determined using the DNA testing and analysis. A recent research has pointed that almost 1 out of 10 Americans have doubts regarding the paternity. The establishment of a biological authentic relationship between a parent and his child is very important. This determination helps a great deal in health-care tracking, financial assistance, emotional reasons and various legal scenarios.

There are various methods of DNA testing that are used to determine the paternity claims of an individual. Some of the commonly used methods are “DNA blood test”, “DNA hair testing, “Buccal Swab test”. Initially let us see how the DNA blood testing is conducted. This test is ideally conducted in laboratories that are certified by the various health federations for authenticity. Nowadays the DNA blood testing kits are locally available in drug stores so that it can be convenient for a common man to purchase it for their personal use.

Before conducting the test it is recommended that there should be expert supervision and must be done under the guidance of a professional. All the points as well as specifications mentioned by the manufacturers must be taken care of properly otherwise the results might come out to be inaccurate. The other common DNA testing method is the Buccal swab testing. This method is also referred to as DNA mouth swab testing or the DNA cheek swab testing.  In this method or technique buccal swabs are used instead blood testing kits. However this method is considered to be more convenient as compared to the blood testing one.

The other major advantage of the buccal swab testing method is the fact that it is non-invasive and is a much simpler technique of collecting DNA samples from the potential candidates. One more aspect about the buccal swabs is that unlike the blood test samples, it doesn’t require to be refrigerated. They can be stored safely without any damage for almost six to seven months. DNA hair test is another common technique of paternity testing. This type of testing is much more challenging and complicated a compared to other forms of testing.

The DNA testing today has become an indispensable and a standard method of determining paternity of an individual.

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Types of Paternity DNA Testinghttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/types-of-paternity-dna-testing/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/types-of-paternity-dna-testing/#comments Fri, 20 Apr 2012 15:43:24 +0000 dnatesting http://www.herbalincensereviews.org/?p=67

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One of the medical tests for which there is growing demand all over the world is the DNA testing. DNA testing is also known as the DNA typing and genetic fingerprinting. It is generally defined as the technique which is employed for assisting the identity of the individuals through the DNA profile. It is used for criminal investigation and parental testing purposes. The medical theory is that the persons who are closely related to each other have the similar set of the DNA sets.
test dna Types of Paternity DNA Testing
The court of law also admits the result of the paternity testing as the irrefutable medical test. There are many types of Paternity DNA testing which you can do to ascertain the paternity of a child. The DNA test can be done before and after the birth of the child.

Postnatal DNA test

If you would like to do the DNA test after the birth of the child, there are some methods with which you can do the child’s DNA testing. You can collect the blood of the child and the father and test these blood samples and match them. You can also take the Buccal that is cheek swab of the both child and the father and test for matching DNA samples. You can also collect the umbilical cord of the child after the birth and do the DNA test and match with father.

Prenatal DNA Test

If you do not want to wait and would like to do the DNA testing before the birth of the child, you can do some paternity testing. You can do the paternity testing which is known as the amniocentesis. This procedure includes the penetration of a thin needle in the uterus, through the abdomen. Through this thin needle, a small amount of amniotic fluid is drawn out and can be tested for the DNA testing. But this test is very dangerous. Due to this, there is the chance of the miscarriage and other side-effects which include leaking of amniotic fluid, vaginal bleeding and cramping.

The other paternity testing which can be done before the birth of the child is Chorionic Villus Sampling. This test can be done in the early pregnancy from 10th to 13th weeks. A thin tube or the needle is inserted through the vagina, which goes through the cervix and chorionic villus is obtained. As the test is a little dangerous, a doctor’s consent is necessary for conducting this procedure for DNA testing.

DNA profile technique was introduced in 1984 by Sir Alec Jefferys who was at University of Leicester, UK. Since, then DNA testing has become an important medical test which has many uses from the paternity testing to the DNA testing which are employed to identify the identify the suspect of many kinds of the crimes. In many countries, the laws of the country have included clauses which include the result of the DNA testing as the medical evidence. The accuracy of the DNA testing has been proven over and over all over the world.

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How to Find a DNA Testing Lab for Paternity Testinghttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/how-to-find-a-dna-testing-lab-for-paternity-testing/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/how-to-find-a-dna-testing-lab-for-paternity-testing/#comments Wed, 22 Feb 2012 20:36:51 +0000 dnatesting http://drugtesting-kit.com/?p=237

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One of the big questions when you would like to do paternity testing or DNA testing is to choose the best DNA testing Lab for conducting the DNA test and giving the correct result without fail. There are many DNA testing Labs in the market and on the internet but as with any profession, there are some standards to which any DNA testing Labs should conform to make the criteria. Apart from that, you should check that the DNA testing Lab should possess some certifications which proclaim them as the best DNA testing Labs for the Paternity Test.

Certifications for various DNA testing

  1. AABB Certifications – This certification is provided by the American Association for Blood Bank. It is one of the premier organizations in America which provides the accreditation for the DNAgenetic testing How to Find a DNA Testing Lab for Paternity Testingtesting Lab. The procedure is very stringent and given after the most stringent assessing of the facilities and the qualifications of the doctors who are employed in the concerned DNA testing Labs. Apart from that, the assessors are sent at regular intervals to keep an eye on the maintenance and functioning of the DNA testing Labs to maintain the standard of the DNA testing Labs. The medical evidence of the AABB credential Labs are readily admissible n the court of law.
  2. CAP Certification –One of the most important credential which is provided by the Collage of American Pathologists. One of the toughest certifications, they have established a strong system by which they aim to bring the excellence in all areas in the field of the medical consulting. Also they have established a strong international program for elevating the standards in this field. They have established a lot of standards, DNA testing Labs have to comply in order to receive and keep the credential
  3. CLIA Certification – In 1988, the resolution which was Clinical Laboratory Amendment Bill was passed by the US Congress, which was concerned with the improving and establishing the standard for quality for any laboratory who were working using the human samples and used to provide the medical diagnostic results. After every 2 years, the assessors are sent to check the functioning and the efficiency of the accredited DNA testing lab. A center for Medicare & Medicaid Services which is also known as CMS regulates the CLIA this certification.

Most appropriate DNA certification

These are only some of the certifications which you should check about the credibility of the DNA testing Lab for paternity testing. Apart from that, when you are looking for a good DNA testing Lab, which will  do the best paternity testing and provide the correct DNA testing report in an efficient manner in an prescribed timing, you should check the certifications and the credential check of the concerned DNA testing lab before consulting them for the paternity testing. This will ensure the correct testing report in the discreet manner. Also they will have the best doctors and the ample resources to conduct the DNA testing in an efficient manner.

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Some DNA Paternity Testing Myths Revealedhttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/some-dna-paternity-testing-myths-revealed/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/some-dna-paternity-testing-myths-revealed/#comments Sun, 15 Jan 2012 16:23:39 +0000 dnatesting http://drugtesting-kit.com/?p=262 Some DNA Paternity Testing Myths Revealed is a post from: DNA Testing and Paternity Testing Guide

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DNA testing is primarily done for the several reasons which prominently include the paternity testing which is on the increase in the several parts of the world with people who would like to determine the paternity of their children. Like every field, DNA testing also has its share of misconceptions and myths which surround it. In this article, we will try to clear some myths and the misconceptions about paternity testing and getting a DNA Test –

Myths and Facts about Paternity Testing -paternity tests Some DNA Paternity Testing Myths Revealed

  1. Paternity testing can only be done after the birth of the baby. This is not true. With the advance in the DNA technology, now the paternity testing can also be done during pregnancy. This DNA testing is also known as the prenatal paternity test. It used to be dangerous, but now it is safer.
  2. Paternity testing can be only done by giving the blood samples. It is not true. Today there is different DNA testing which use the painless buccal swab of a person to get the DNA samples for the required paternity test.
  3. If DNA testing is done, the test will become public. This myth is completely wrong. The DNA testing labs are bound by the law of the country to keep the records of the DNA testing confidential. Due to which the results of the DNA testing are known only to concerned person. It is up to that person to decide whether he would like to make the results of the DNA tests public or not.
  4. DNA home test is cheaper than the properly conducted test. It is always said that the stitch in time saves nine. If you conduct the DNA home test for settling the doubts in your mind, then there is no problem but the DNA home test can be contaminated by the inexpert handling and the result of the DNA testing can be inaccurate. Further, this home DNA test is not recognized by the civil court in the long term. For satisfying the conditions of the civil court, you will have to conduct the DNA testing again with the original conditions, so you will have to do the payment again for the same DNA testing. It would cost less if you do the DNA testing correctly in the first time.
  5. Paternity testing can cause the divide in the families. Not true, not only the DNA testing can discover the new members of the family it also solidifies the ties of the families by offering the concrete evidence and reduces the levels of suspicions in the family.

Conclusions about the myths of paternity testing -

These are some of the myths which prevail in the public mind but as DNA testing is on increase worldwide with people want to establish the paternity by the DNA testing. Also, they form some misconceptions about the DNA testing when they glean the knowledge from the movies, books, internet and articles. As the faulty knowledge is sometimes very dangerous, it is better to get these misconceptions cleared and gain the correct knowledge so this also applies to the paternity testing.

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What is Autosomal DNA Testinghttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/what-is-autosomal-dna-testing/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/what-is-autosomal-dna-testing/#comments Fri, 16 Dec 2011 18:41:00 +0000 dnatesting http://drugtesting-kit.com/?p=256

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DNA testing is normally done to identify the suspect in a crime or to prove the close relationship between the two people, such as with a paternity test. One of the DNA testing types, which is known as the Autosomal DNA testing, does more than that. It can be defined as the test which is done at specific locations on any person for the genealogy purposes in the field of the genetics. This DNA testing is also known as the genealogical DNA test. Unlike other DNA testing, this testing is not done for the purpose of identifying any suspect or to prove the close relationship, or to prove any genetic disorders.

Autosomal DNA testing

The autosomal DNA testing is used specifically for the use in the genealogical studies which is to determine the paternal and maternal ancestry and the ethnic origins of any person who is taking the autosomaldna cartoon What is Autosomal DNA TestingDNA testing. The results are generally used in procuring the ethnic information about the person and other population. They are generally used in comparing the living individuals and the historic population for noting the similarities and the historic population of the same origin to conduct further studies from the sociological angle.

How to conduct Autosomal DNA testing

Conducting the Autosomal DNA testing is very easy. You just have to take the cheek-scraping which is also known as the buccal swab instead of the blood samples or the toothbrush and any other sample and put this sample in the envelope and mail this envelope to any genetic genealogy lab for the further testing. Instead of the cheek scraping of a person, some genealogical labs also use chewing gum or the mouth wash for the further DNA testing. As there are few genealogical labs that do these types of the DNA testing, you should do the research on the internet for the addresses and check out the information regarding the labs before sending the DNA samples for the further DNA testing. These labs keep the DNA samples in store for you, but are bound under the law of the country for destroying the DNA testing sample if you request them to destroy it.

Most of the methods of the DNA testing are generally conducted to determine the relationship between the parent and the child or to ascertain the identity of a certain person. It is also conducted to identify the suspect of any crime but the autosomal DNA testing is completely different as it is not done for any of these purposes. The autosomal DNA testing is done to ascertain the ethnic origin of the concerned person, to determine the paternal and the maternal ancestors of the person. This parental testing is also known as the genealogical DNA testing and is used in the genetics studies conducted by the researchers who research the relation between the today’s person and the historic populations. As today most of the people are interested in researching their family tree and discovering the unknown relatives, this genealogical parenting test helps them in their quest of DNA testing.

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A Summary of the DNA Testing Historyhttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/a-summary-of-the-dna-testing-history/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/a-summary-of-the-dna-testing-history/#comments Fri, 25 Nov 2011 23:29:36 +0000 dnatesting http://www.herbalincensereviews.org/?p=53

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Also known as Deoxyribonuleuc Acid test, the history of the DNA testing is very interesting. From the first, the scientists who were interested in find a cure for the hereditary diseases that the cure for these diseases was in the study of the genetics. The DNA testing is an off-shoot of this study. There are many main milestones of the DNA testing history which are as follows –

History of DNA testingGregor Mendel 296x300 A Summary of the DNA Testing History

  1. The history of the DNA testing started with Gregor Mendel who was an Austrian monk. Today he is known as the father of the genetics. He discovered in 1865 with the study upon the peas in his garden that the genes are inherited from the parents, one from each side.
  2. In 1869, Freidrich Miescher found that the nucleus of each cell in the body which he named as the nuclein molecule. Afterwards, the nuclein molecule was named as DNA or Deoxyribonuleuc Acid.
  3. Phobeus Lenvene, who was a biochemist, was specialized in studying the function and structure of the nucleic acid. In 1909, Phobeus Lenvene discovered ribose which is a sugar and is present in genetic material. After 1929, he discovered various things like nucleotides and deoxyribose which includes thymine, cytosine, adenine and guanine. He recognized the significance of the base of phosphate-sugar in the DNA’s structure.
  4. In 1928, Fredrick Griffith, who discovered that there was some transforming agent, which is active and influence the development of the hereditary disease in either way. They found that this transforming agent can be the molecule which is genetic in nature.
  5. Oswald Avery who was  an American medical researcher and physician continued the work of Fredrick Griffith and continued his transformation experiments further. In 1944, he discovered the DNA was the inheritance molecule which served as the transformation agent in hereditary diseases. It also was the molecular material for the genes and the chromosomes.dna cartoon 288x300 A Summary of the DNA Testing History
  6. In 1950, Erwin Chargaff, while doing further experiments found some basic patterns which was present in the 4 bases of the DNA and determined the basic law of the DNA.
  7. In 1953, the team of Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling performed x-ray diffraction analysis and found that the molecule of DNA has molecular rungs like ladder and has helical shape.
  8. Finally in 1953, Francis Crick and James Watson took the experiments further and developed the DNA as the double helix model.

Conclusion

DNA testing which is also known by its full form that is Deoxyribonuleuc Acid has its history, which is based in the study of the genetics. The history of DNA testing is long and interesting. When the scientists were studying the genetics closely in hopes of finding the cure for the hereditary diseases, they inadvertently discovered the basics of the DNA testing, which is growing in popularity as an accurate means of identifying the individual’s identity and the relation between the siblings and conclusively establishing the heredity of an individual.

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DNA Termshttp://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/dna-terms/ http://www.paternitytestkit.org/dna-test/dna-terms/#comments Mon, 02 May 2011 20:23:56 +0000 dnatesting http://www.herbalincensereviews.org/?p=106

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Administrator – Also known as a ‘Project Administrator’, ‘Group Project Administrator’, ‘Project Manager’, ‘Coordinator’ and ‘Co-Coordinator’. A volunteer who establishes a DNA study with one or multiple commercial DNA testing companies.

Admixture DNA – The non-gender chromosomes that mix or recombine. Also known as autosomal DNA.

Allele – (pronounced UH-leel) – Used in genetic genealogy in reference to the scientific result for a marker.paternity cartoon 300x194 DNA Terms

Ancestral haplotype – The haplotype of a MRCA deduced by comparing descendants’ haplotypes and eliminating mutations. A minimum of three lines, as distantly related as possible, is recommended for deducing the ancestral haplotype.

Ancestral state – Refers to the state of a SNP that has mutated and is shared by the most people. Example: A negative result on a SNP means it is ancestral, a positive result means it is derived.

atDNA – Acronym for Autosomal DNA.

Autosomal DNA – The DNA of non-sex-determining chromosomes that mix or recombine. Also known as admixture DNA.

Anthrogenealogy – A DNA term coined by Family Tree DNA combining the words ‘anthro’ and ‘genealogy’ in reference to utilizing DNA to trace one’s heritage far beyond recorded documentation.

Bikini haplotypes – Minimal haplotype data, i.e.: six markers

CODIS – Acronym for Combined DNA Index System – The FBI’s autosomal DNA database for profiles of criminal offenders.

Convergence – When a haplotype mutates enough to appear to be of another haplogroup than it actually is. The only way to confirm the correct haplogroup designation is through SNP confirmation.

CRS – Acronym for Cambridge Reference Sequence. The first mitochondrial DNA to be fully sequenced at Cambridge University in 1981. The anonymous donor of the CRS was haplogroup ‘H’. Mitochondrial results are determined based upon where the results differ from the CRS.

Derived state – Refers to the state of a SNP that has mutated, usually in one man, from the ancestral state and created a new haplogroup or sub-clade of a haplogroup. A positive SNP result is derived, a negative SNP result is ancestral.

DNAF – Acronym for DNA-Fingerprint – a commercial DNA testing company. (Acquired by Family Tree DNA in 2006).

DNAH – Acronym for DNA Heritage – a commercial DNA testing company. Their web site includes another list of DNA terms.

DNA-NEWBIE – A DNA-Newbie is someone who is new to the field of genetic genealogy. It is also the name of a Yahoo mailing list forum sponsored by the International Society of Genetic Genealogy, which developed this list of DNA terms.

DYS – Acronym for DNA Y-chromosome Segment – The assigned number of a marker on a segment of the Y-chromosome. Example: DYS# 393

EA – Acronym for EthnoAncestry – a commercial DNA testing company.

FGS – Acronym for Full Genomic Sequence – Usually used in referring to a full mitochondrial sequence test comprising all 16,569 base pairs.

FST – Acronym for Full Sequence Test – Again, usually used in referring to a full sequence mitochondrial test. See FGS.

FTDNA – Acronym for Family Tree DNA – a commercial DNA testing company. Their web site includes another list of DNA terms.

FTDNATiP – Acronym for Family Tree DNA Time Predictor – A program created to calculate the time to the MRCA using mutation rates specific to each marker.

GAP – Acronym for the Group Administrator Page – This is a webpage in which a DNA Project Administrator utilizes functions such as creating a public website, generating a FTDNATiP report, etc. to assist project participants in coordinating results.

GEDCOM – Acronym for Genealogical Data Communications – A plain text program created for exchanging genealogical data between different genealogical programs. Family Tree DNA’s ‘My FTDNA’ page, Y-Search and Mitosearch all contain a feature to upload a GEDCOM for pedigree comparisons to matches. While this is a genealogy term rather than a DNA term, GEDCOMs help tie DNA testing results to paper records.

Genetic Genealogy – The latest tool for genealogists utilizing DNA to aid genealogical research. Many of these DNA terms are specific to genetic genealogy.

Genographic Project – (pronounced GENE-o-graphic) – A five-year scientific genetics project launched in 2005 to study and map human migratory patterns. Along with testing indigenous populations, the project offers a 12-marker Y-chromosome or HVR1 mtDNA test for public participation with a portion of the proceeds benefiting the indigenous communities. The project is sponsored by National Geographic, IBM and the Waitt Foundation. Genographic participants have the option to join Family Tree DNA’s database once their DNA results are in. They also have a list of DNA terms.

Haplogroup – A group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a SNP mutation. Because a haplogroup consists of similar haplotypes, this is what makes it possible to predict a haplogroup. A SNP test confirms a haplogroup. Haplogroups are assigned letters of the alphabet, and refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations, Example: R1b1. Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups have different haplogroup designations. Haplogroups pertain to your deep ancestral origins dating back thousands of years.

Haplotype – The term for the set of numbers that consists of your Y-chromosome or mitochondrial DNA results. Haplotypes are also known as signatures. Be careful not to confuse the DNA terms haplogroup and haplotype.

HVR – Acronym for Hyper Variable Region – The sections of non-coding mitochondrial DNA that are used for genealogical DNA testing.paternity test DNA Terms

ISOGG – Acronym for the International Society of Genetic Genealogy, a free society founded in 2005 for the promotion and education of genetic genealogy. They developed this list of DNA terms.

Junk DNA – Slang term usually used in referring to the non-coding region of DNA on the Y-chromosome.

JoGG – The Journal of Genetic Genealogy – An online journal published quarterly with articles and features pertaining to genetic genealogy and anthrogenealogy.

MSY – Acronym for Male Specific Y – See: NRY

Marker – A specific place on a chromosome with two or more forms, called alleles, the inheritance of which can be followed from one generation to the next. In genetic genealogy, this refers to non-coding Y-chromosome DNA. Numbers designate the individual DNA segments. Example: 393=13. This means at marker #393, your allele value is 13.

Mitochondrial DNA – Energy releasing organelles located in the cytoplasm of cells, which contain their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to child, but only females continue to pass on their maternal mitochondria to their children.

Mitosearch – A free public database sponsored by Family Tree DNA where mitochondrial DNA results from any testing facility may be uploaded and compared.

MRCA – Acronym for Most Recent Common Ancestor.

mtDNA – Acronym for mitochondrial DNA.

Mutation – A change in the DNA that occurs spontaneously. Mutation is a scientific term that often connotes a negative connotation as a result of 1950′s ‘B’ movies, but in genetic genealogy, mutations are utilized for distinguishing different ancestral lines. Mutations can also occur due to environmental factors, such as exposure to radiation.

Non-coding DNA – Also referred to as ‘junk DNA,’ non-coding DNA is not part of an active gene that contains a code for making a protein. Recent evidence shows that at least some non-coding DNA is involved in biological processes such as regulation of gene expression and chemical signaling among cells. All testing for genealogical purposes is done on non-coding DNA, which makes up nearly 98% of human DNA

NRY – Acronym for Non-Recombining Y – The section of the Y-chromosome that is passed from father to son on down the paternal line. While it does not recombine, it does have mutations over time.

Nuclear DNA – DNA of chromosomes found in the nucleus of the cell.

Null – A null is a value of zero on a marker. Nulls can occur due to missing genetic material on a marker, or a SNP can sometimes cause a null result. Several YSTR markers have been identified in certain families to have null results: 439, 448

OA – Acronym for Oxford Ancestors – a commercial DNA testing company.

Organelle – A cell structure with specialized functions.

Palindrome – A double-stranded DNA segment in which the sequence of one strand is in the reverse order to the other strand. Example: DYS464X where a family line in R1b1c has cccc or ccgg instead of the usual cccg pattern.

Phylo-tree – Shortened term for Phylogenetic Tree – Most often used in reference to the available online diagrams connecting all Y-chromosome haplogroups. This term is also applied to DNA project diagrams created by Project Administrators utilizing specialized software.

Proxy – Usually used in reference to the contact person for a DNA test. Example: A female who has tested a male relative.

RAO – Acronym for Recent Ancestral Origins (formerly known as REO – Recent Ethnic Origins. The number of matches you have in Family Tree DNA’s database as specified by country or region. To access the RAO, Family Tree DNA clients need to click the tab on their “My FTDNA” page.

recLOH – Acronym for Recombinant Loss of Heterozygosity – When a section of DNA on a marker is missing, that marker is sometimes repaired by another marker filling in the missing DNA with its own material. This is referred to as a “recLOH event” and is usually observed with multi-copy markers like 385a and 385b, and is also common in the 464 set. The recLOH event causes the allele values to match 11-11 instead of the more common, 11-14 that you see in R1b. This is one of the more complex DNA terms.

RG – Acronym for Relative Genetics – a commercial DNA testing company. (Acquired by Ancestry.com/The Generations Network in Summer 2007).

SMGF – Acronym for Sorensen Molecular Genealogy Foundation. Established by James Sorensen as a scientific genealogical DNA database, participants submit a DNA sample along with a four generation pedigree chart. While participation is free, SMGF does not send participants their results. However, many participants are able to “find” themselves in the online results database by matching up their pedigrees. Currently, only Y-chromosome results appear in the database, and the current wait time for results to appear is between nine months to over two years. Their web site includes another list of DNA terms.

SNP – (pronounced SNIP) – Acronym for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. A SNP test confirms your haplogroup by determining if a SNP has mutated from its derived or ancestral state. A SNP is usually found on a different area of the Y-chromosome than where the YSTR markers are. Sometimes, a SNP may cause a null result on a marker.

STR – Acronym for Short Tandem Repeat – See: YSTR

Sub-clade – Referring to a “branch” farther down the phylogenetic tree. Example: H3 -> ’3′ is a sub-clade of mitochondrial haplogroup ‘H’. R1b -> ’1b’ is a sub-clade of Y-chromosome haplogroup ‘R’. Sub-clade testing and deep clade testing are DNA terms that mean the same thing.

TG – Acronym for Trace Genetics – a commercial DNA testing company.

Triangulation – A method of determining the DNA haplotype of an ancestor using the DNA results of direct line descendants.

Whit’s Predictor – The commonly applied nickname to the “Y-Haplogroup Predictor” created by Whit Athey. Enter Y-chromosome markers into the predictor and it will display percentages for matches to various haplogroups.

X-chromosome – The female sex chromosome, if a child receives one X from the father and one X from the mother, the child’s gender is female.

Y-chromosome – The male sex chromosome. In other words, only males have a Y-chromosome, which they receive from their father, who received it from his father, and so on. This transmission of the Y-chromosome down the male line is why it is useful for surname testing to determine if two males share a common ancestor.

Y-Base – A free public database sponsored by DNA Heritage where Y-chromosome DNA results from any testing facility may be uploaded and compared.

Y-Search – A free public database sponsored by Family Tree DNA where Y-chromosome DNA results from any testing facility may be uploaded and compared.

YSTR – Acronym for Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat. The number of times the sequence of bases repeat that determines the value of the marker. Example: Thirteen repeats of the same bases equals a value of ’13′.

END OF DNA TERMS

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